About the discipline
Clothing – both in the United States and other cultures – is often dictated or influenced by religious belief. Understanding religious beliefs can help a distributor or designer work within those social mores on a local or global scale while also creating a product that is unique and worth buying. Some religions might object to clothing made with certain types of fibers, whereas others might criticize the way it is worn. A background in religion helps a person or company in this field navigate those issues and ensure long-term profitability and distribution goals as they seek to bring a brand into the market.
Religion and textiles: Religion has long had an impact on beliefs about textiles and how they are used. For example, the Old Testament banned wearing garments woven of two kinds of material. In Jewish law, it is forbidden to wear a garment containing wool and linen. The Navajos believe that the art of weaving was passed on to them by Spider Woman, who spun thread and wove on a loom made for her by her husband, Spider Man, from earth and lightening bolts. Many American Indian tribes are known for weaving symbols about their tribal identities or beliefs into textiles such as rugs and blankets.
While black clothing is a symbol of mourning and white is associated with purity in many Western cultures, in Hindu, Buddhist and many African beliefs, white clothing is a sign of mourning. In Islamic burial rituals, the body is wrapped in a shroud of clean white cloth. Clothing is also used to act out one’s faith and religious identity. Sikh and Hindu women will often wear a sari, a decorated piece of cloth wrapped around the body. Some Muslim women wear “hijab,” a cover worn on the head, face or body, or more broadly defined as clothing that communicates modesty, privacy and morality.
A growing trend is modest but fashionable clothing – particularly for young women – that allows consumers such as Muslims, Mormons and others to dress in contemporary fashions while also fulfilling religious beliefs about modesty. Research could examine religion in terms of fashion and values, the styles of clothing it dictates, the process in which textiles are made, and how textiles represent changing beliefs and markets as well as traditions.
Economics and ethics: Religion and ethics has been tied to textiles throughout U.S. history. Slavery in the South was tied to the labor that helped people produce large amounts of cotton. Later, it was the use of children and deplorable working conditions in U.S. textile mils during the industrial revolution. Today, there are issues related to economic development in other nations related to cheap textile production. Nations such as the United States pay low wages to textile workers in other countries and buy textiles at inexpensive costs to sell them at discount prices in the United States, which can depress local economies. The U.S. also has the ability to depress other markets with cheap textiles, an ethical issue for those attempting to sell in other markets as well as a business issue for those attempting to open new markets.
Current Issues: An interesting movement in recent years is the use of free-market trade to benefit developing countries. One such company is Edun, which uses profits from clothing sales to benefit social causes and uses organic fabrics. Another line, launched by Bono of the rock band U2 and called “Red,” uses profits from sales to help fund AIDS treatment in African nations. Such “business with a social conscience” enterprises are becoming attractive to both investors and those working in the industry, showing that fashion sense does not have to be compromised by social conscience.
Researchers have pointed to the trend of consumers’ desire to serve social good, which gives those working in textiles an opportunity to capture a new market and make themselves distinct from other clothing sellers by catering to this movement. Research in this field could look at the factors in this social trend, chart its sustainability and help create new economies of scale that would make this area profitable while also accomplishing the supporters’ aims.
- “Accommodating Religious Beliefs: Harm, clothing or symbols, and refusals to serve others” by R. Wintemute. Modern Law Review. 77 no. 2 (2014): 223-253.
- “Atheism in religious clothing? Accounting for atheist interventions in the public sphere” by Hannah Dick. Culture & Religion. 16 no. 4 (2015): 372-391.
- “Burqa Ban, Freedom of Religion and ‘Living Together’” by Sune Laegaard. Human Rights Review. 16 no. 3 (2015): 203-219.
- “Cloth And The Corpse In Ebira.” by John Picton. Textile: The Journal Of Cloth & Culture 7.3 (2009): 296-313. Academic Search Complete. Web. 19 Jan. 2012.
- “Contesting the Veil in America: Catholic Habits and the Controversy over Religious Clothing in the United States” by Kathleen Holscher. Journal of Church & State. 54 no. 1 (2012): 57-81.
- “Does religiosity impact Moroccan Muslim women’s clothing choice?” by C. Bachleda. Journal of Islamic Marketing. 5 no. 2 (2014): 210-226.
- “Dressing for heaven: religious clothing in Italy, 1215-1545” by M.B. Porter. Current Reviews for Academic Libraries. 48 no. 11 (2011): 2180-2180.
- “Dressing Religious Bodies in Public Spaces: Gender, Clothing and Negotiations of Stigma Among Jews in Paris and Muslims in London” by L. Endelstein and L. Ryan. Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science. 47 no. 2 (2013): 249-264.
- “From Heavy Beads to Safety Pins: Adornment and Religiosity in Hindu Women’s Pote Practices” by Megan Adamson Sijapati and Tina Harris. Material Religion. 12 no. 1 (2016): 1-25.
- “Notes on Church-State Affairs” by David W. Hendon and David Beary. Journal of Church & State. 59 no. 1 (2017): 142-153.
- “Outlawing the Veil, Banning the Muslim? Restricting Religious Freedom in France” by Melanie Adrian. Cross Currents. 65 no. 3 (2015): 371-379.
- “Religious Symbols and Clothing in the Workplace: Balancing the Respective Rights of Employees and Employers” by Joan Squelch. Murdoch University Law Review. 20 no. 2 (2013): 38-57.
- “The Effect of Religious Clothing on Gaze Behavior: An Eye-Tracking Experiment” by F. Pazhoohi, A.F. Macedo and J. Arantes. Basic and Applied Social Psychology. 39 no. 3 (2017): 176-182.
- “The ideal democratic apparel: t-shirts, religious intolerance, and the clothing of democracy” by L.S. Neal. Material Religion. 10 no. 2 (2014): 182-207.
- “The Provenance And Use Of Etowah Palettes.” by P.B. Drooker et al. American Antiquity 76.1 (2011): 81-106. America: History & Life. Web. 19 Jan. 2012.
- “The Role of Religiosity on the Relationship Between Materialism and Fashion Clothing Consumption Among Malaysian Generation Y Consumers” by M. Rahman, M. Albaity and B. Maruf. Social Indicators Research. 132 no. 2 (2017): 757-783.
- “Valued Amish Possessions: Expanding Material Culture and Consumption.” by B.M. Tharp. Journal of American Culture. Vol. 30, No. 1 (2007): 38-53.
- Islam and the Veil: Theoretical and Regional Contexts. Theodore Gabriel and Rabiha Hannan. Continuum, 2011.
- Medieval fabrications: dress, textiles, clothwork, and other cultural imaginings. E. Jane Burns. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.
- Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion (Ten-volume set). Berg Publishing. 2010.
- Woven Wonder: The Tradition of Indian Textiles. AshaRani Mathur. Rupa & Co, 2002.
- Weaving, Veiling and Dressing: Textiles and Their Metaphors in the Late Middle Ages. Kathryn M. Rudy. Brepols Publishers, 2007.
- Five Generations of Indonesian Textiles. Ruth Barnes and Mary Hunt Kahlenberg (eds.). Prestel USA, 2010.
- Ecclesiastical Dress in the Medieval Near East. Karel C. Innemee. Brill Academic Pub, 1997.
- Designing Ecclesiastical Stitched Textiles. Beryl Dean. Search Press(UK), 1993.
- Shaker Textile Arts. Beverly Gordon. UPNE, 1980.
- Quilts and Women of the Mormon Migrations. Mary Bywater Cross. Thomas Nelson, 1997.
- Clothed in Integrity: Weaving Just Cultural Relations and the Garment Industry. Barbara Paleczny. Canadian Corp. Studies in Religion, 2000.
- Wrapped in Pride: Ghanaian Kente and African American Identity. Doran H. Ross, et all. UCLA, 1998.
- Silk and religion: an exploration of material life and the thought of people, AD 600-1200. Xinru Liu. Oxford University Press US, 1998.
- The Islamic Modern Dress. M. Mutahari. Kazi Publications (3rd ed.), 2007.
- Undressing religion: commitment and conversion from a cross-cultural perspective. Linda B. Arthur. Berg Publishers, 2000.
- Textiles Today: A Global Survey of Trends and Traditions. Chloë Colchester. Thames & Hudson, 2007.
- Adegbite, Stephen Akinade. “Factors influencing technology innovations in the indigenous textile weaving industry in southwestern Nigeria.” International Journal of Technology, Policy & Management. Vol. 11, No. 2 (2011): 155-72.
- Chi, Ting. “Building a sustainable supply chain: an analysis of corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices in the Chinese textile and apparel industry.” Journal of the Textile Insitute. Vol. 102, No. 10 (2011): 837-48.
Codes of ethics
- Ethical Fashion Forum
- “No Sweat” Fair Trade Company
- American Chemical Society – “Professional Ethics and Moral Responsibility in Chemistry”
- Association for the Nonwoven Fabrics Industry – Mission Statement
- Material Religion
- Winterthur Portfolio: A Journal of American Material Culture
- Religion & the Arts
- Textile: The Journal of Cloth & Culture
- Clothing and Textiles Research Journal
- Religion and Fashion StudySphere Educational Resource
- Encyclopedia of Religion (Textiles)
- Cloth Only Wears to Shreds: Yoruba Textiles and Photographs from the Beier Collection
- Textiles of the North American Southwest
Professional associations and faith groups
- Christian Entrepreneur Organization
- Christians in Commerce
- Council for the Advancement of Muslim Professionals
- International Christian Chamber of Commerce
- Jewish Professional Women’s Network
- Minaret Business Organization
- Holscher, Kathleen. “Contesting the Veil in America: Catholic Habits and the Controversy over Religious Clothing in the United States.” Journal of Church and State. Published online, Feb. 2011.
- Witcher, Brittany, “Identity and Fashion: A Look at Jordanian Christian Women and How Their Identity is Portrayed Through Their Clothing.” ISP Collection. 2010.
- History of Costume: Clothing and Culture (.pdf). Annie O. Cleveland, University of Pittsburgh