About the discipline
Those with an understanding of Romance languages and the current social, business, political and economic climates of nations influenced by these languages are at an advantage when engaging in business or other professions in these regions.
Romance languages are descended from Latin, with more than 600 million native speakers worldwide, mainly in the Americas, Europe, and Africa, as well as in smaller regions scattered through the world. Knowledge of the practices, customs, languages and “intangibles” in areas where French, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish are spoken is important in gaining an accurate interpretation of events in business, education and media.
The regions where these languages developed are influenced by a long history of religious events, from wars between Catholics and Protestants throughout Europe, the expulsion of Jews from France during World War II and Spain during the Spanish Inquisition, Muslim rule of Spain for several centuries, and the rise of Roman Catholicism that would eventually be based at the Vatican in Italy. Latin, the language of the Roman Empire, spread with Christianity throughout Europe, penetrating new lands and evolving into Romance languages we know today.
Language and religion: Fluency in Romance languages means being able to read influential works in their original texts, which can lead to a deeper understanding of philosophical and religious ideas. Examples include: Dante Alighieri’s “The Divine Comedy,” which was written in his native Italian. The account of the inferno, purgatory and paradise, based on a vision he claimed to have had in 1300, describes his travels through hell, purgatory and heaven. Dante’s vivid descriptions of the descent into hell and ascension to heaven have influenced religious thought and artistic interpretations for centuries.
French philosophers Albert Camus, Jean-Paul Sartre and Michel Foucault offered more modern critiques of the search for truth and meaning, from existentialist or post-modernist views. In 1948, the Roman Catholic Church placed Sartre’s complete works on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum (List of Prohibited Books). Their philosophies explored the search for a meaning of life, and – though they came to different conclusions – their questions are ones religions attempt to address as well.
Translations and influences: During the Protestant Reformation and with the rise of the printing press, the Bible was translated into vernacular languages so that regular people – not only priests or Church leadership – could read the texts. The first complete translation from the originals into Spanish was published in 1569; French in 1530; Italian in 1471; and Portuguese, beginning in 1644 and completed some 60 years later. These translations occurred during times of prosperity and colonization for these nations, which spread Christianity and its texts to the Americas, Africa and Asia. The influence of this colonization and Christian faith is evident today as both Christianity and Spanish are long established in Latin American countries. Mexico, for example, has the largest population of Spanish speakers in the world and is home to some 75 million Catholics.
In addition to Latin, the Spanish language was influenced by Arabic during the time of the Moors, who were Muslim and ruled Spain and much of the Iberian Peninsula, beginning in the year 711. Many places on the peninsula have names derived from Arabic, most commonly on the Eastern Coast and region of Andalusia in Spain and southern Portugal. Over the centuries, Spanish borrowed many words from Arabic, including: alcoba (alcove, room), alfombra (carpet), guitarra (guitar); alcazar (fortress), alcalde (mayor); asesino (assassin), tarifa (tariff, fee); arroz (rice), espinaca (spinach), naranja (orange), café (coffee); alcohol (alcohol), alkali (alkali), adobe (adobe), laca (lacquer); cero (zero), cifra (cipher, figure), álgebra (algebra), cénit (zenith); and expressions such as ojalá (“may it be that…”, originally “May Allah want…”). An estimated 5,000 words in Spanish are of Arabic origin. Many of these words, especially in the scientific field, were passed on to other languages, including English, which received most of them by way of French.
Issues today: Languages change and adapt to reflect the population and times in which they develop. They reflect their origin, as well as the blending of cultures that occurs when they move to new regions, such as French in the Caribbean, Spanish in much of Latin America and the Philippines, and Portuguese in Brazil. Understanding the history and foundation of Romance languages and how they developed leads to insight into cultures that is useful in today’s globally diverse socio-political, religious and business environment.
- “Church Attendance and Religious Change in Italy, 1968-2010: A Multilevel Analysis of Pooled Datasets” by Cristiano Vezzoni and Ferruccio Biolcati-Rinaldi. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. 54 no. 1 (2015): 100-118.
- “Clusters of religiosity of Portuguese population” by José Pereira Coutinho. Analise Social. 50 no. 216 (2015): 604-631.
- “Construct and concurrent validity of the Italian version of the Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness/Spirituality” by Cristina Campana. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality. 5 no. 4 (2013): 316-324.
- “Dimensions of Religious/Spiritual Well-Being, Personality, and Mental Health” by S. Stefa-Missagli. Archive for the Psychology of Religion. 36 no. 3 (2014): 368-385.
- “Does Religion Bias Individuals Against Female Political Leadership in Latin America?” by Mark Setzler. Latin Americanist. 59 no. 4 (2015): 47-72.
- “From Vatican II to Speaking in Tongues: Theology and Language Policy in a Q’eqchi’-Maya Catholic Parish” by Eric Hoenes del Pinal. Language Policy. 15 no. 2 (2016): 179-197.
- “Perception of the Role of Spirituality and Religiosity in the Addiction Treatment Program Among the Italian Health Professionals: A Pilot Study” by Valeria Zavan and Patrizia Scuderi. Substance Use & Misuse. 48 no. 12 (2013): 1157.
- “Pietro Tamburini’s Jansenist Legacy at the Irish College in Rome and His Influence on the Irish Church” by Christopher Korten. Catholic Historical Review. 103 no. 2 (2017): 271-296.
- “Religion and Identity: Families of Italian Origin in the Nottingham Area, UK” by Deianira Ganga. Migration Letters, 2005.
- “Religion as a site of language contact” by Bernard Spolsky. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 23:81-94, 2003.
- “Religiosity, religious affiliation, and patterns of sexual activity and contraceptive use in France” by Caroline Moreau, James Trussell and Nathalie Bajos. European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care. 18 no. 3 (2013): 168-180.
- “Renaissance Truth and the Latin Language Turn” by Alan R. Perreiah. Journal of the History of Philosophy, Volume 44, Number 2, April 2006.
- “So far and yet so close: Emergent spirituality and the cultural influence of traditional religion among Italian youth” by S. Palmisano and . Social Compass. 64 no. 1 (2017): 130-146.
- “Spirituality and religion in experiences of Italian American daughters grieving their fathers” by Lorraine Mangione, Megan Lyons and Donna DiCello. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality. 8 no. 3 (2016): 253-262.
- “Spirituality and Religiosity in the Aftermath of a Natural Catastrophe in Italy” by Paolo Stratta. Journal of Religion & Health. 52 no. 3 (2013): 1029-1037.
- “The Roles of Politics, Feminism, and Religion in Attitudes Toward LGBT Individuals: A Cross-Cultural Study of College Students in the USA, Italy, and Spain” by Meredith G. F. Worthen, Vittorio Lingiardi and Chiara Caristo. Sexuality Research and Social Policy. 14 no. 3 (2017): 241-258.
- “What has Rome to do with Bethlehem?’ Cultural Capital(s) and Religious Imperialism in Late Ancient Christianity” by Andrew S. Jacobs. Classical Receptions Journal. Vol. 3, No. 1 (2011): 29-45.
- “What Makes Muslims Feel French?” by Rahsaan Maxwell and Erik Bleich. Social Forces. 93 no. 1 (2014): 155-179.
- Language, culture, and society: key topics in linguistic anthropology. Christine Jourdan and Kevin Tuite. Cambridge University Press, 2006.
- Converting Words: Maya in the Age of the Cross. William F. Hanks. University of California Press, 2010.
- On the Latin Language. Marcus Terentius Varro (translated by R.G. Kent). Wm Heinemann Ltd., Harvard Univ. Press.
- The Latin Language and Christianity. Paul Berry. Edwin Mellen Press, 2004.
- Pray It in Latin, Louis Pizzuti. Lulu.com, 2006.
- Reading French: A Guide for Students of Religion and Theology. K. Janet Ritch. Clements Publishing, 2006.
- The politics of language: conflict, identity and cultural pluralism in comparative perspective. Carol L. Schmid. Oxford University Press US, 2001.
- Remains of Arabic in the Spanish and Portugese Languages. Stephen Weston. Nabu Press, 2011.
- Language, religion and national identity in Europe and the Middle East: a historical study. John Myhill. Jon Benjamins Publishing Company, 2006.
- Monolingualism and bilingualism: lessons from Canada and Spain. Sue Wright. Multilingual Matters, 1996.
- Local religion in colonial Mexico. Martin Austin Nesvig. UNM Press, 2006.
- Rereading the Renaissance: Petrarch, Augustine and the Language of Humanism.Carol Everhart Quillen. University of Michigan Press, 1997.
- “Tradition and change in language and discourse: three case studies.” Southwest Journal of Linguistics, June 6, 2001.
- “Global Knowledge-based Policy in Fragmented Societies: the case of curriculum reform in French-speaking Belgium” by Eric Mangez. European Journal of Education. Vol. 45, No. 1 (March 2010): 60-73.
Codes of ethics
- American Association of University Professors – Mission & Description
- AAUP Statement of Principles on Academic Freedom and Tenure
- American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese – Mission
- American Association of Teachers of French – Constitution
- Modern Language Journal
- Romance Notes
- Journal of French Language Studies
- American Journal of Philology
- International Journal of Hispanic Media
- Romance Languages – The Language of Religion and Culture (Encyclopaedia Brittanica)
- Boston University Libraries Collection Development Policies (Religion and Romance Languages)
- Latin phrases on religion
- Latin Language and Literature
- Latin – Civilization’s Foremost Language
- The Gordon Collection and the French Wars of Religion
Professional associations and faith groups
- North American Association of Islamic and Muslim Studies
- North American Christian Foreign Language Association
- Women and religion in Latin America(.pdf). Mike Stanfield and Lois Lorentzen, University of San Francisco.
- Latin American History. Steven Volk, Oberlin College.